American Express Company (American Express) is a global service company. The Company’s range of products and services includes Charge and credit card products, Expense management products and services, Consumer and business travel services, Stored value products, such as travelers cheques and other prepaid products, Network services, merchant acquisition and processing, servicing and settlement, and point-of-sale, marketing and information products and services for merchants, and fee services, including market and trend analyses and related consulting services, fraud prevention services, and the design of customized customer loyalty and rewards programs.
The original company was founded on March 18, 1850, through the consolidation of three companies active in the express transport of goods, valuables, and specie between New York City and Buffalo, New York, and points in the Midwest: (1) Livingston, Fargo & Company (formerly Western Express), founded in 1845 by Henry Wells and William G. Fargo, later of Wells Fargo fame; (2) Wells & Co. (formerly Livingston, Wells & Co.), cofounded by Wells in 1846 and under his ownership at the time of the merger; and (3) Butterfield & Wasson, founded by John Butterfield and James D. Wasson. American Express was at first an unincorporated association of investors headed by Wells as president and Fargo as secretary. By the end of the American Civil War, its business had so flourished, with some 900 offices in 10 states, that it attracted competition in 1866 in the formation of Merchants Union Express Company. For two years the two companies engaged in cutthroat competition and, on the verge of financial exhaustion, finally merged on November 25, 1868, to form the American Merchants Union Express Company, with Fargo succeeding as president. The company was renamed American Express Company in 1873.
When the U.S. federal government nationalized the express industry in 1918, thereby consolidating all domestic express operations in the American Railway Express Company (see REA Express, Inc.), American Express turned almost wholly to its banking operations and its relatively new travel services, which had been launched in 1915.
The classic American Express green charge card was introduced in 1958. From the 1960s through the ’80s, American Express diversified its holdings by acquiring companies in areas such as investment banking, insurance, and publishing.
By the early 21st century, American Express operated in more than 40 countries. The company also had a publishing division, which produced such magazines as Travel & Leisure and Food & Wine. However, it was sold to Time Inc. in 2013.
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